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Pingyao push light lacquer ware
Pingyao county has a long history of push-gloss lacquerware. In the Tang Dynasty (618-97 AD), the local characteristics of push-gloss lacquerware were formed, and by the Qing Dynasty, it had been exported to Britain, Russia and other countries on a considerable scale.
Push-light lacquerware is a kind of high-grade paint equipment with technological properties, which is named after the palm of hand gives out luster. Pingyao push-light lacquerware is a famous craft in Shanxi. It has simple and elegant appearance, shining and glittering decoration, delicate and smooth feel, heat-resistant and moisture-proof, and durable and honest lacquerware.
There are many kinds of high-grade screens, hanging screens, viewing cabinets, large and small wardrobes, corner cabinets, wine cabinets, display cabinets, jewelry boxes and other primers. The main surface of Pingyao Tuiguang lacquerware is painted with patterns with national style, such as classical novels, story figures in dramas, ancient myths, story figures in stories, etc., or painted with gold or carved with knives, carved cushions or stacked drums, with smooth colors, harmonious and magnificent.
Pingyao push light lacquerware production is divided into wooden tires, gray tires, painters, Painter and Mosaic, etc. The wood tyre car makes pine wood to make all kinds of furniture. After the wood tyre car wraps white linen around the wood tyre, a layer of pig’s blood is applied to make brick mortar. This is called "dressing hemp and hanging ash". The painter’s car process is very detailed and complicated. Every time the gray tyre is painted, it must be wiped with water sandpaper, and then repeatedly pushed by hand until it feels smooth. Brush it for more than seven times, brush it for less than six times, and then push it to be more detailed. First, coarse water sandpaper pushes cotton cloth, pushes silk newspaper and rolls up a thread Pushing hands dipped in soybean oil and pushing palms repeatedly by eyesight, careful by feeling and times to make the paint bright and clean. Painters and mosaic cars have higher technical requirements. Painters must study painting for four years and master the basic skills of painting before allowing the paint to be hooked with red dots and green. Painters’ blades are required to be as thick and thin as a pen tip, moderately ups and downs, and freely inlaid with original pieces. Some workers put mussels, mother-of-pearl, Ivory colored stones are processed into various original pieces, which are skillfully inlaid and cemented by mosaic workers according to the pattern requirements. In the middle and early Qing Dynasty, gold lacquerware created a new process of thickening paint layer and introducing luster. Since then, Pingyao pushed lacquerware has formed a unique technological style combining grinding and pushing paint surface with gold painting [1]?
Boyang lacquer ware
Boyang lacquerware has a long history, exquisite design and novel shape. The glossy wall of the lacquer surface is smooth and good at it in Han Dynasty.
After the Qing Dynasty, it was well-known in the south of the Yangtze River and exported to Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States in the 1960 s and its daily output jumped to the second place in China. In 1915, artist Zhang Xizhen won the Panama International Fair Award for carving, painting, filling and black-faded hat caps. He has won the National Excellent Production Award of the Ministry of Light Industry and the National Excellent Design Award of Arts and Crafts for many times; Participated in the painting project of the Great Hall of the People for many times, produced many lacquerware, calligraphy, painting, screen tools, etc., participated in the repair and decoration of famous places such as Tengwangge Xishan Wanshou Palace in Nanchang, and painted paintings such as April in the south of the Yangtze River, Treading Qing, Jiang Kui and Fishing Eagle, etc., which were repeatedly reported by CCTV in the collection of China Art Museum.
The bodiless method of Boyang cloth tire lacquerware is more advanced. The rosin is carved into a male mold or melted and poured into a female die Yang mold. After the tire is formed, the rosin is crushed and once bodiless, and the cloth tire is formed without seams and smoothness.
Yichun bodiless lacquer ware
China lacquerware has a long history. Many years ago, the lacquerware system reached amazing superb skills. A group of monks, including Senxiaoshun, the elder of Zhaosi Temple in Nara, escorted back to China to visit relatives. The statue of monk Jian Zhen was made of lacquer.
Yichun lacquerware was founded in the Eastern Han Dynasty, with a history of more than 17 years. Yichun is located in the west of Jiangxi Province, which has been famous for its rich summer cloth, flower explosion and lacquerware since ancient times. Yichun lacquerware is beautiful, light and exquisite in shape, bright as a mirror and not afraid of flooding. Temperature resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance and corrosion resistance; The longer it lasts, the brighter the luster becomes.
Yichun bodiless lacquerware production is purely manual operation. First, it is made into a model, then cotton cloth, silk cloth and summer cloth are mounted on the model, and then the liquid paint is coated. After drying in the shade, it is bodiless, filled with ash, and then polished, pushed and decorated. Now Yichun Lacquerware Factory inherits and develops the unified process foundation. The lacquerware, porcelain, bronze ware, silverware, jade and cloisonne are melted in one furnace and inlaid with gold and silver, carved with lacquer, carved and filled with cloisonne.
Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware is an artistic treasure with unique national style and strong local characteristics. Beijing cloisonne and Jiangxi Jingdezhen porcelain are also known as the "three treasures" of China craftsmanship abroad.
Gold lacquerware
The way to paint gold lacquerware is to paint the ground with gold glue to paint the pattern, and stick the gold foil or gold powder when it is still dry. In addition, mica mother-of-pearl, placer gold, ground gold, mud gold and fine gold can be decorated at the same time.
This kind of lacquerwork is also called painted lacquerwork or painted lacquerwork, and it is usually combined with painted lacquerwork. Monochrome is generally dark black and brown primer, and various colors depict patterns. This kind of lacquerwork painting has strong decorative and expressive effects. In addition, there is a kind of "painted lacquerwork" in the painted door of "Records of Ornaments" which is classified as covered lacquerwork.
lacquer from hemudu
udu
Neolithic lacquerware in China has been around for six or seven thousand years since 1978.
A vermicelli bowl found in three cultural layers is the earliest lacquer ware in China. The diameter of the bowl is 169 cm, the height is 57 cm, and the bottom diameter is 767 cm. The wooden tire is oval, and the shape is beautiful. There is a thin layer of vermilion paint peeling off with little luster. The hot cracking test confirms that the wooden bowl paint is raw lacquer. The discovery of vermicelli bowl said that China had known the paint performance and mixed the color maker as early as Neolithic Age.
Sea lacquer ware
Lacquer craft, called Kuai in ancient times, has a long history in China. Lacquer carving in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China has reached a certain scale. In 15-5 years of the Republic of China (1996-1936), lacquer carving in the sea flourished. There are three kinds of artists, namely, bone stone inlay, jade inlay and hand grinding Luodian, who are interested in ivory, ivory bone, Qingtian stone, Shoushan stone, Mongolian stone, mica, clam shell or jade, white jade and mica. The flower-and-bird facial expressions are finely carved, then assembled and inlaid with various lacquerware, and then carved into a pattern background with the aid of gold tracing technique, so that the picture is colorful and full of three-dimensional sense. For example, the picture of "I wish you a long life" is inlaid with bones and stones, and the idea of hanging the screen is full of interest. The whole picture cleverly selects a variety of colors to highlight the unique shape of "the old birthday girl", the facial expression is vivid manually, and the clothes of the birthday girl and children are colorful. The gold tracing decorative picture is simple and dignified. The lacquer is carved with a knife, and the lacquer is Elegant colors show all kinds of beautiful pictures. Sea-carved lacquer has the characteristics of smooth knife technique and beautiful lines. It is good at carving pavilions, pavilions and figures in ancient costumes, accurately copying China’s famous classical paintings and designing the story of classical literature, and enjoys a high reputation as a screen door. "Qinghe Tu" is an excellent representative of its reproduction of the most wonderful part of Qinghe Tu, a famous painter in the Northern Song Dynasty. It maintains the original painting style, simple characters, landscapes and realistic architectural shapes. There is also a kind of sea-carved lacquer called the art of carving, which is an inheritance and unification.
yangzhou lacquer ware
Since the 1950s, as many as 10,000 pieces of lacquerware have been unearthed from many Han tombs in the far and near suburbs of Yangzhou, including bowls, plates, pots, spoons, ear cups and other tableware, cases, boxes, pillows, rulers, combs, grates, chests, terracotta figures, inkstones, boxes, bows, scabbard, etc. There are the most wooden fetal bones, such as gold and silver inlays. Therefore, some scholars say that there are also many dry lacquerware in Yangzhou, the birthplace of wooden fetal lacquerware in China. It is said that there are still a small number of bamboo fetal lacquerware, copper fetal lacquerware and leather fetal lacquerware. According to Youyang Miscellany, Yang Taizhen Wai and other records, Tang Xuanzong and Yang Guiji have repeatedly given precious lacquerware such as gold and silver from Yangzhou to An Lushan and his courtiers Tang Xizong, and the Yangzhou Salt and Iron History of Gao Pian once sent Yangzhou lacquerware to Chang ‘an to flatter the court. "Statue of Buddha statue of Pilushena", "Statue of Buddha of Pharmacist" and "Statue of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva with Thousand Hands" were all made by Jian Zhen’s brother, monk Yijing of Xingyun Temple in Yangzhou. They were all Japanese national treasures. Yangzhou became a national lacquer system center in Yuan Dynasty, and the lacquer carving was particularly exquisite. At the end of Yuan Dynasty, the "point screw" craft appeared. The Qing Dynasty was the heyday of Yangzhou lacquer history, and all of them had the export foreign trade of Yangzhou lacquerware, which was more prosperous in the late Qing Dynasty and sold to Europe and the United StatesSince the founding of the People’s Republic of China, three generations of Yangzhou lacquerware artists have inherited the unified skills and made innovations. Today, Yangzhou lacquerware can be divided into seven categories: carved lacquer inlaid with jade, finely ground snail, inlaid with bone and stone, point snail, carved lacquer, painted hook knife and painted sand inkstone. There are various tables, chairs, benches, bottles, plates, tubes, wardrobes, wine cabinets and video cabinets. Box and other furniture and furnishings 3 kinds of Yangzhou lacquerware are stable and elegant in shape, exquisite in workmanship, harmonious and symmetrical in color, soft and moist in luster. The decorative art not only has rich and quiet national characteristics, but also carved lacquer inlaid with jade in the early 1960 s, Ode to Peace. The Great Hanging Screen of "The Magpie Climbs the Plum" was set up in the Great Hall of the People in the capital in the early 1970s. The large screen of the mother-of-pearl "Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge" reflected the achievements of socialist construction and was praised by Chairman Mao. In the spring of 1979, Vice Chairman Deng Yingchao visited North Korea and presented the national gift of the mother-of-pearl "Splendid Adult Spring" to President Kim Il Sung in September 1987. After being praised by people from all walks of life, the Osaka counter was sold for 40,000 yuan. In May 1988, the first flexible and rollable lacquer ware, Fireworks March, was successfully developed in China. It is a combination of modern science and technology, light weight and easy to carry and collect. In April 1989, people from all walks of life in Hong Kong saw the spectacle. There are 3 lacquer ware industrial enterprises in Yangzhou, namely Yangzhou Lacquerware Factory, No.2 Lacquerware Factory and Jiangdu Special Craft Factory, which produce and sell more than 5 countries and regions to develop foreign trade.
Fu Sheng doesn’t know if he looks at it. Every category in the antique industry has its own history. If he doesn’t look at it, he doesn’t know that a lacquer will be worth four million in seven years.
Of course, he is very aware that this lacquer ware is the crystallization of art, which is very different from those lacquerware in family life.
When Fusheng said, "This thing is really interesting, 4 million. Do you think our river city has a future if it is developed?"
He is not in charge of the economy but the director of personnel, but it doesn’t prevent Director Fusheng from thinking about the economic development of the river city. Maybe one day he will be promoted to the position of mayor. Isn’t that something that can be considered?
Wang Haidong nodded and said, "The middle and low grades can still be done, but if we are doing high grades at this time, after all, we can’t start late but Yangzhou, but they all have historical background. We can’t compare with taking it slow."
Chapter ninety-four Lacquerware II
Lacquer and sculpture are used to decorate objects, and inlaid patterns such as turquoise, mother-of-pearl, mussel bubble make lacquerware world wider.

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